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青藏高原典型城市拉萨市大气颗粒物污染源成分谱建立研究与特征分析
Establishment and Analysis of Atmospheric Particulate Matter Source Spectra in the Typical City of Lhasa,Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,China
投稿时间:2017-01-24  修订日期:2017-04-11
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2017.06.07
中文关键词:  PM2.5  PM10  源成分谱  拉萨  青藏高原
英文关键词:PM2.5  PM10  source profile  Lhasa  Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(21407135);西藏自治区科技计划重点科技项目(Z2014C49G3-9)
作者单位
杨和辰 重庆大学, 重庆 400044 
张丹* 重庆市环境科学研究院, 重庆 401147 
楚宝临 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012
西藏自治区环境监测中心站, 西藏 拉萨 850000 
张卫东 重庆市环境科学研究院, 重庆 401147 
夏鹏超 西藏自治区环境监测中心站, 西藏 拉萨 850000 
袁睿 重庆市环境科学研究院, 重庆 401147 
陈敏 重庆市环境科学研究院, 重庆 401147 
杜敏 重庆市环境科学研究院, 重庆 401147 
冀磊 西藏自治区环境监测中心站, 西藏 拉萨 850000 
陈旭 西藏自治区环境监测中心站, 西藏 拉萨 850000 
赵矿 西藏自治区环境监测中心站, 西藏 拉萨 850000 
通讯作者:张丹*  重庆市环境科学研究院, 重庆 401147  
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中文摘要:
      系统研究建立高原典型城市拉萨市开放源(土壤风沙尘、道路扬尘、施工扬尘、采矿扬尘),移动源(机动车尾气尘),固定源(工业烟粉尘、生物质燃烧尘及餐饮油烟)共3类8种大气颗粒物(PM2.5、PM10)污染源化学成分谱。研究结果表明:开放源以地壳类元素为主,自然背景特征明显;移动源源成分谱中元素碳含量明显高于其他城市,在PM2.5、PM10源谱中分别占60.15%、51.86%,有机碳含量也相对较高,均超过20%;固定源中,牛粪和松柏枝两类生物质燃烧污染源的有机碳含量显著高于其他组分,工业烟粉尘中Ca远高于其他组分,在PM2.5、PM10源谱中分别占21.32%、21.21%。移动源、固定源源成分谱均显示出高原城市的独特特征。
英文摘要:
      The chemical composition of airborne particulate matter pollution source in a typical plateau city of Lhasa,China,was established and the sources of pollution include open sources (soil dust, road dust, construction dust, mining dust), mobile source (motor vehicle exhaust dust) and stationary sources (industrial smoke dust, biomass burning dust and cooking fumes). It is shown that the open sources are dominated by crustal elements and the influence of natural background is significant. The mobile source component spectrum shows that the elemental carbon content in PM2.5 and PM10 source spectrum accounted for 60.15% and 51.86% respectively, which is obviously higher than that of other cities; the organic carbon contents are all more than 20%, which is relatively high. In stationary sources, the content of organic carbon in the biomass burning sources from cow dung and pine twig were significantly higher than that of other components. The content of calcium in industrial dust was much higher than other components, accounting for 21.32% and 21.21% in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Both the mobile source and the stationary source spectrum show the unique characteristics of the plateau city.
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