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采暖期北京大气PM2.5中碳组分的分布特征及来源解析
Distribution Characteristics and Sources Apportionment of Carbonaceous Components in PM2.5 During the Heating Periods in Beijing
投稿时间:2017-06-05  修订日期:2017-08-14
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2018.04.07
中文关键词:  PM2.5  有机碳  元素碳  源解析
英文关键词:PM2.5  organic carbon(OC)  elemental carbon(EC)  source apportionment
基金项目:大气污染多组分在线源解析集成技术(2016YFC0208500,2016YFC0208506);国家重点研发计划"颗粒物源识别的比对验证和应用示范"(2016YFF0103006)
作者单位
索娜卓嘎 西藏自治区环境监测中心站, 西藏 拉萨 850000 
谭丽 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
周芮平 东北师范大学, 吉林 长春 130000 
吴丹 广州禾信分析仪器有限公司, 广东 广州 510530 
于海斌* 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
通讯作者:于海斌*  中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012  
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中文摘要:
      在冬季采暖期采集北京大气中的PM2.5样品,利用自动称重系统AWS-1和热/光碳分析仪测定样品中PM2.5和OC/EC,研究碳组分的变化特征,并通过OC/EC的值和单颗粒气溶胶质谱仪(SPAMS 0515)分析大气颗粒物中碳气溶胶的可能来源。结果表明:PM2.5污染天气的OC、EC在PM2.5中的占比要比清洁天气时低,其中SOC在PM2.5中的占比由清洁天气时的22.9%减少到了重污染天气的15.4%,这是因为大气中的PM2.5有较强的消光作用,导致气溶胶的氧化能力降低,造成了SOC的生成量减少;通过分析OC/EC值表明,冬季采暖期北京大气碳气溶胶的主要来源为机动车尾气和燃煤,这与SPAMS 0515在线解析的结果一致。采用SPAMS 0515进行在线OC、EC分析,在PM2.5质量浓度≤250 μg/m3时同手工方法有较好的相关性。解析结果表明,燃煤和机动车尾气是北京冬季采暖期的首要污染物来源,占比分别为34.0%和26.4%。
英文摘要:
      During the heating periods, PM2.5 samples were collected in Beijing to study the change characteristics of carbonaceous components, adopting COMDE DERENDA AWS-1 and heat/light carbon analyzer to test PM2.5 and OC and EC content, and the possible sources of carbonaceous aerosol in atmospheric particles were analyzed by OC/EC ratio and Hexin SPAMS0515. Results showed that the percentages of OC and EC in PM2.5 during fine particles polluted days were lower than that of fine particles unpolluted days. The estimated percentage of SOC content in PM2.5 was reduced from 22.9% in fine particles unpolluted days to 15.4% in heavily polluted days. The SOC content was reduced because of extinction effect of atmospheric particles that lowered carbonaceous aerosol's oxidative capacity. The analysis of OC/EC ratio showed that main sources of carbonaceous aerosol in Beijing atmosphere in heating periods were motor vehicle exhaust and coal-fired flue gas. The online OC/EC analysis by Hexin SPAMS0515 showed high correlation with manually test method when PM2.5 concentration ≤ 250 μg/m3. The analysis indicated that motor vehicle exhaust and coal-fired flue gas were the main pollutant sources during Beijing heating periods, which were 34.0% and 26.4% respectively.
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