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新乘用车内空气中的挥发性有机物污染特征及健康风险
Characteristics and health risks of Volatile Organic Compounds in Interior Air of Newly Manufactured Passenger Cars
投稿时间:2022-04-11  修订日期:2023-04-27
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2023.05.16
中文关键词:  车内空气  挥发性有机物  时间变化趋势  致癌风险
英文关键词:vehicle interior air  volatile organic compounds  temporal trend  carcinogenic risk
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目"室内灰尘中新型溴代/有机磷阻燃剂的污染特征及基于SHIME的幼儿健康风险评价"(21777124)
作者单位
李力 中国汽车工程研究院股份有限公司环保与健康测评研究中心, 重庆 401122 
江楠 中国汽车工程研究院股份有限公司环保与健康测评研究中心, 重庆 401122 
仇雁翎* 同济大学环境科学与工程学院, 上海 200092
上海市化学品分析、风险评估与控制重点实验室, 上海 200092 
通讯作者:仇雁翎*  同济大学环境科学与工程学院, 上海 200092;上海市化学品分析、风险评估与控制重点实验室, 上海 200092  
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中文摘要:
      为调查新生产乘用车内空气中挥发性有机物的含量、时间变化趋势以及致癌风险,2017—2020年在环境舱中采集了48辆新车在常温、高温和通风3种模式下的车内空气样品。结果显示,新车空气中苯系物(苯、甲苯、乙苯、对二甲苯、间二甲苯、邻二甲苯和苯乙烯之和)的质量浓度中值在常温、高温和通风模式下分别为101、335、55.8 μg/m3;醛类物质(甲醛、乙醛和丙烯醛之和)的质量浓度中值分别为103、446、30.0 μg/m3。常温模式下的乙醛及高温模式下的甲醛和乙醛超出国家标准限值的比例较高,超标比例分别为77.1%、81.3%和89.6%。2017—2020年国内生产的新乘用车,车内空气中的苯系物和醛类组分在3种模式下不同年份间基本无显著性差异。致癌风险评估结果显示,车内空气中苯的致癌风险可接受,甲醛的致癌风险在部分车型中较高。
英文摘要:
      In order to investigate the content,temporal trend and carcinogenic risk of volatile organic compounds in the air of newly produced passenger cars,vehicle interior air samples of 48 newly-manufactured passenger cars under ambient mode,parking mode and driving mode were collected from 2017 to 2020.The results revealed that the median concentrations of benzene homologue which includes benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,p-xylene,m-xylene,o-xylene and styrene were 101 μg/m3 in ambient mode,335 μg/m3 in parking mode,and 55.8 μg/m3 in driving mode.For carbonyl compounds,the median concentrations were 103 μg/m3 in ambient mode,446 μg/m3 in parking mode,and 30.0 μg/m3 in driving mode.The proportions exceeding the national standard limit were observed 77.1% of acetaldehyde level in ambient mode,81.3% of formaldehyde and 89.6% of acetaldehyde in parking mode.For the new cars produced domestically from 2017 to 2020,there was basically no significant difference in the compounds among the years.Carcinogenic risk assessment indicated that exposure levels of benzene in air of passenger cars were acceptable,while adverse health effects were possible for formaldehyde in a small number of car models.
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